With his 8,5 million square kilometers, Brazil almost occupies half of the South American continent. The biggest distance from the east to the west is 4.330 kilometers, the biggest distance from the north to the south 4.345 kilometers. You can found all landscape forms on this giant surface, from the half desert as far as to the rain forest, and the Brazil with its different ecosystems over the largest variety at Biosystems of the world. The highest mountain of Brazil is the Pico of Neblina with 3.014 meters. He lies at the border to Venezuela. Also, the Monte Roraima with 2.875 m,.a important mountain lies in this area.The Serra do Espinhaço are in central Brazil, the Serra of Mantiqueira between São Paulo and Rio, the Serra do Mar, in the north of Rio de Janeiro and the coast area, between Rio and Joinville, and the Serra Geral between Florianopolis and Porto Alegre. These mountain reach no more as 1.500 meters of height in the average. The rest of the country is relatively flat. With exception of Chile and Ecuador, Brazil borders on all other South American countries . The biggest population density about the Atlantic coast. Directly at the coast or not far away lay the big cities - São Paulo with 18 million inhabitants, Rio de Janeiro with 10 million. Other big cities at the coast are Fortaleza, Recife and Salvador. Further in the interior, lay Belo Horizonte with 2,3 million inhabitants and Brasilia, the capital, with 2 million inhabitants. Important cities in the south are Porto Alegre (1,4 million), Florianopolis (350 Tsd.) and Curitiba (1,6 million).
Brazil is divided into 26 federal states and a federal district around the capital Brasilia. The 26 federal states spread out like follows:
o The north federal states are Amazonas, Pará, Acre, Rondônia, Roraima, Amapa and Tocantins. The entire region is only sparely populated. The population's majority lives in the cities Manaus and Belém.
o The federal states of the northeast is Ceará, Rio Grande do Norte, Maranhão, Piauí, Paraíba, Pernambuco, Alagoas, Sergipe and Bahia. Although went out from this region the colonizing of Brazil, only 30 percent of the population lives here today. The rich cultural heritage and the incomparable beauty of the coast make this region a tourists attraction
o In the middle of the west from Brazil are located only 6 percent of the population. Through aimed economic policy, the federal states Mato Grosso experience, Mato Grosso do Sul and Goiás as well as the federal district at present a strong growth, what leads to another increase of the population.
o the southwest is the economic main focus, with big industry locations in or in immediate surroundings of the cities São Paulo, Rio de Janeiro and Belo Horizonte. 45 percent of the entire population of Brazil live here. Thanks to the clenched economic power, a multiplicity of good hotels, restaurants and Shopping centers installed here. Not only industry settlements but also many cultural monuments are located in the four federal states Espirito Santo, Rio de Janeiro, Minas Gerais and São Paulo, a splendid coast between Santos and Rio remains of the Atlantic rain forest ia an important ecological refuge.
o the south is Brazil's part with most European characteristics. The federal states Paraná, Santa Catarina and Rio Grande do Sul are the new homes of many immigrants from Austria, Italy, Germany, Switzerland and from Eastern European countries. 15 percent of the Brazilian population lives here. The economic structure of this region is a good mixture from industry and agriculture, before all cattle-raising and wine-growing. Touristic highlight are the famous Iguaçu-waterfalls. The ruins of the Jesuit missions are document of the Brazilian history. The Serra Geral invites to hikes with their plateaus and Canyons.